mercoledì 26 dicembre 2012

Second Day of the Christmas Octave, St. Stephen, First Martyr

Opening Prayer from the Liturgy:  “Lord, today we celebrate the entrance of Saint Stephen into eternal glory. He died praying for those who killed him. Help us to imitate his goodness and to love our enemies. We ask this through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son, who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.”

Acts of the Apostles 6:8-10; 7:54-59; The Story of St. Stephen’s Martyrdom

One wonders why the Church would celebrate the feast of a martyr on the Second Day of the Octave of Christ’s nativity.  Pope John Paul II supplied the answer:  “The Church calls the day of martyrdom a dies natalis (day of birth). Indeed, by virtue of Christ's death and Resurrection, the death of the martyr is a birth in Heaven. This is why it is so meaningful to celebrate the first martyr the day after Christmas: Jesus who was born in Bethlehem gave his life for us so that we too, reborn "from on high" through faith and Baptism, might be willing to give up our own lives for love of our brothers and sisters” (John Paul II, Angelus, Feast of St. Stephen, 2002).
“Boxing Day” is a popular tradition in England, Germany and Holland. A practiced developed in the middle-ages whereby priests opened the parish poor box and distributed the wealth to the poor on the feast of St. Stephen.  Similarly, the laity imitated the Church’s practice and kept their own poor “boxes” throughout the year.  On the day following Christmas, the box was opened, the money tallied, and distributed to the poor. Eventually, Boxing Day became a day of giving and receiving gifts.
The poor, according to the Fathers of the Second Vatican Council is defined as “anyone in need.”  Today, find those people:  the lonely, the forgotten, the shut-in, the sick, the materially poor, the spiritually poor, and give them the gift of your presence.  Do not be cynical.  Do not underestimate the value of your presence, the love you bring and the care you give.  We live in a world where many are poor, they await you on this day.

domenica 16 dicembre 2012

Remember this lady!

 
Irena Sendler died on 12 May 2008 (aged 98) in Warsaw, Poland.

During WWII, Irena, got permission to work in the Warsaw ghetto, as a plumbing/sewer specialist. She had an 'ulterior motive'. She KNEW what the Nazi's plans were for the Jews (being German). Irena smuggled infants out in the bottom of the tool box she carried and she carried in the back of her truck a burlap sack, (for larger kids). She also had a dog in the back that she trained to bark when the Nazi soldiers let her in and out of the ghetto. The soldiers of course wanted nothing to do with the dog and the barking covered the kids/infants noises. During her time of doing this, she managed to smuggle out and save 2500 kids/infants. She was caught, and the Nazi's broke both her legs, arms and beat her severely. Irena kept a record of the names of all the kids she smuggled out and kept them in a glass jar, buried under a tree in her back yard. After the war, she tried to locate any parents that may have survived it and reunited the family. Most had been gassed. Those kids she helped got placed into foster family homes or adopted.

Last year Irena was up for the Nobel Peace Prize. She was not selected. President Obama won one year before becoming President for his work as a community organizer for ACORN and Al Gore won also --- for a slide show on Global Warming.

In MEMORIAM - 63 YEARS LATER I'm doing my small part by remembering you about this lady. It is now more than 60 years after the Second World War in Europe ended.

I'm writing this in memory of the six million Jews, 20 million Russians, 10 million Christians and 1,900 Catholic priests who were murdered, massacred, raped, burned, starved and humiliated! Now, more than ever, with Iran, and others, claiming the HOLOCAUST to be 'a myth'. It's imperative to make sure the world never forgets, because there are others who would like to do it again.


- @Palme

sabato 15 dicembre 2012

Reading something about the latest twitter'n'fabook changes

http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2012/12/facebook-privacy-update/

http://www.theatlanticwire.com/technology/2012/12/facebook-new-privacy-settings-explained/59906/

http://www.digitaltrends.com/social-media/what-your-new-facebook-privacy-settings-will-look-like/

https://support.twitter.com/articles/215585-twitter-101-how-should-i-get-started-using-twitter#

http://blog.ohinternet.com/12526/new-twitter-profiles-for-all-starting-december-12/

Obama the "tolerant" fellow. thinking on Sept 25 2012


Barack Obama gave what I thought it was his last speech to the UN as President of the United States last September 25. He touched the hot topics of the previous few weeks, starting from the hatred which was manifested with the attacks on the Western embassies. He asked (to himself, dunno if as a rhetoric question or because of dumbness) if it was finally understood the reason of what had happened. He basically said: do they want overwhelm the West and Islam? Or what is it the meaning of the attacks?


The West... and Islam?

When I read the speech I was shocked. Since Cairo 2009 the dummy had said so many stupidities. Thing is it's not about silliness or lack of culture. When he talks of Islam or to Muslim people he is dangerous - very very dangerous.

He thinks the "attack to the common values​​" by "Islamic fundamentalists" is a challenge to the world, or to the United Nations. No!!! It is absolutely addressed to the West, and in particular (of course) to the United States.

Perhaps he pretends to be naive, but it is certain that these "values" ​​are meaningless if they have no foundation. Everyone knows that their foundation is in the natural law. This notion is completely absent from the thought of Obama. He walks on the surface of a swamp, when he falls, we fall all.


- by @Paolme

"Christmas Eve at the Gas Station"

The Christmas story we all love :)

The old man sat in his gas station on a cold Christmas Eve. He hadn't been anywhere in years since his wife had passed away. He had no decorations, no tree, no lights. It was just another day to him. He didn't hate Christmas, just couldn't find a reason to celebrate. There were no children in his life. His wife had gone.
He was sitting there looking at the snow that had been falling for the last hour and wondering what it was all about when the door opened and a homeless man stepped through.
Instead of throwing the man out, George, Old George as he was known by his customers, told the man to come and sit by the space heater and warm up.
"Thank you, but I don't mean to intrude," said the stranger. "I see you're busy. I'll just go."
"Not without something hot in your belly," George turned and opened a wide mouth Thermos and handed it to the stranger. "It ain't much, but it's hot and tasty. Stew. Made it myself. When you're done there's coffee and it's fresh."
Just at that moment he heard the "ding" of the driveway bell. "Excuse me be right back," George said.
There, in the driveway, was an old 53 Chevy. Steam was rolling out of the front. The driver was panicked. "Mister can you help me!" said the driver, with a deep Spanish accent. "My wife is with child and my car is broken."
George opened the hood. It was bad. The block looked cracked from the cold; the car was dead. "You ain't going in this thing," George said, as he turned away.
"But, mister. Please help ." The door of the office closed behind George as he went in. George went to the office wall and got the keys to his old truck, and went back outside. He walked around the building and opened the garage, started the truck and drove it around to where the couple was waiting.
"Here, take my truck," he said. "She ain't the best thing you ever looked at, but she runs real good." George helped put the woman in the truck and watched as it sped off into the night. George turned and walked back inside the office.
"Glad I gave 'em the truck. Their tires were shot, too. That 'ol truck has brand new ..." George thought he was talking to the stranger. But, the man had gone. The thermos was on the desk, empty with a used coffee cup beside it.
"Well, at least he got something in his belly," George thought. George went back outside to see if the old Chevy would start. It cranked slowly, but it started. He pulled it into the garage where the truck had been. He thought he would tinker with it for something to do. Christmas Eve meant no customers. He discovered the block hadn't cracked, it was just the bottom hose on the radiator.
"Well, shoot, I can fix this," he said to himself. So, he put a new one on.
"Those tires ain't gonna get 'em through the winter either." He took the snow treads off of his wife's old Lincoln. They were like new and he wasn't going to drive the car.
As he was working, he heard shots being fired. He ran outside and, beside a police car, an officer lay on the cold ground. Bleeding from the left shoulder, the officer moaned, "Help me." George helped the officer inside as he remembered the training he had received in the Army as a medic. He knew the wound needed attention.
"Pressure to stop the bleeding," he thought. The uniform company had been there that morning and had left clean shop towels. He used those and duct tape to bind the wound.
"Hey, they say duct tape can fix anythin'," he said, trying to make the policeman feel at ease. "Something for pain," George thought. All he had was the pills he used for his back. "These ought to work." He put some water in a cup and gave the policeman the pills.
"You hang in there. I'm going to get you an ambulance." The phone was dead. "Maybe I can get one of your buddies on that there talk box out in your car."
He went out only to find that a bullet had gone into the dashboard destroying the two way radio. He went back in to find the policeman sitting up. "Thanks," said the officer. "You could have left me there. The guy that shot me is still in the area."
George sat down beside him. "I would never leave an injured man in the Army and I ain't gonna leave you." George pulled back the bandage to check for bleeding. "Looks worse than what it is. Bullet passed right through 'ya. Good thing it missed the important stuff though. I think, with time, you're gonna be right as rain." George got up and poured a cup of coffee. "How do you take it?" he asked.
"None for me," said the officer.
"Oh, yer gonna drink this. Best in the city. Too bad I ain't got no donuts."
The officer laughed and winced at the same time. The front door of the office flew open. In burst a young man with a gun. "Give me all your cash!
Do it, now!" the young man yelled. His hand was shaking and George could tell that he had never done anything like this before.
"That's the guy that shot me!" exclaimed the officer.
"Son, why are you doing this?" asked George. "You need to put the cannon away. Somebody else might get hurt."
The young man was confused. "Shut up old man, or I'll shoot you, too. Now, give me the cash!"
The cop was reaching for his gun. "Put that thing away," George said to the cop. "We got one too many in here now." He turned his attention to the young man. "Son, it's Christmas Eve. If you need the money, well then, here. It ain't much but it's all I got. Now, put that pee shooter away." George pulled $150 out of his pocket and handed it to the young man, reaching for the barrel of the gun at the same time.
The young man released his grip on the gun, fell to his knees and began to cry. "I'm not very good at this am I? All I wanted was to buy something for my wife and son," he went on. "I've lost my job. My rent is due. My car got repossessed last week."
George handed the gun to the cop. "Son, we all get in a bit of squeeze now and then. The road gets hard sometimes. But, we make it through the best we can."
He got the young man to his feet, and sat him down on a chair, across from the cop. "Sometimes, we do stupid things." George handed the young man a cup of coffee. "Being stupid is one of the things that makes us human. Comin' in here with a gun ain't the answer. Now, sit there and get warm and we'll sort this thing out."
The young man had stopped crying. He looked over to the cop. "Sorry I shot you. It just went off. I'm sorry officer."
"Shut up and drink your coffee," the cop said.
George could hear the sounds of sirens outside. A police car and an ambulance skidded to a halt. Two cops came through the door, guns drawn.
"Chuck! You ok?" one of the cops asked the wounded officer.
"Not bad for a guy who took a bullet. How did you find me?"
"GPS locator in the car. Best thing since sliced bread. Who did this?" the other cop asked as he approached the young man. Chuck answered him, "I don't know. The guy ran off into the dark. Just dropped his gun and ran."
George and the young man both looked puzzled at each other. "That guy work here?," the wounded cop continued.
"Yep," George said. "Just hired him this morning. Boy lost his job."
The paramedics came in and loaded Chuck onto the stretcher. The young man leaned over the wounded cop and whispered, "Why?" Chuck just said, "Merry Christmas boy ... and you, too, George, and thanks for everything."
"Well, looks like you got one doozy of a break there. That ought to solve some of your problems." George went into the back room and came out with a box. He pulled out a ring box. "Here you go. Something for the little woman. I don't think Martha would mind. She said it would come in handy some day."
The young man looked inside to see the biggest diamond ring he ever saw. "I can't take this," said the young man. "It means something to you."
"And now it means something to you," replied George. "I got my memories. That's all I need." George reached into the box again. An airplane, a car, and a truck appeared next. They were toys that the oil company had left for him to sell. "Here's something for that little man of yours."
The young man began to cry again as he handed back the $150 that the old man had handed him earlier. "And what are you supposed to buy Christmas dinner with? You keep that, too," George said. "Now, git home to your family."
The young man turned, with tears streaming down his face. "I'll be here in the morning for work, if that job offer is still good."
"Nope. I'm closed Christmas day," George said. "See ya the day after."
George turned around to find that the stranger had returned. "Where'd you come from? I thought you left?"
"I have been here. I have always been here," said the stranger. "You say you don't celebrate Christmas. Why?"
"Well, after my wife passed away I just couldn't see what all the bother was. Puttin' up a tree, and all, seemed a waste of a good pine tree. Bakin' cookies like I used to with Martha just wasn't the same by myself and besides I was getting a little chubby."
The stranger put his hand on George's shoulder, "But, you do celebrate the holiday, George. You gave me food and drink and warmed me when I was cold and hungry. The woman with child will bear a son and he will become a great doctor. The policeman you helped will go on to save 19 people from being killed by terrorists. The young man who tried to rob you will make you a rich man and not take any for himself. That is the spirit of the season and you keep it as good as any man."
George was taken aback by all this stranger had said. "And how do you know all this?" asked the old man.
"Trust me, George. I have the inside track on this sort of thing. And, when your days are done, you will be with Martha again." The stranger moved toward the door.
"If you will excuse me, George, I have to go, now. I have to go home, where there is a big celebration planned."
George watched as the old leather jacket and the torn pants that the stranger was wearing turned into a white robe. A golden light began to fill the room. "You see, George ... it's my birthday. Merry Christmas."
George fell to his knees and replied, "Happy Birthday, Lord."


author unknown

giovedì 13 dicembre 2012

December 13 - ST LUCY, VIRGIN, MARTYR — A.D. 304

At Syracuse, in Sicily, in the persecution under the Emperor Diocletian, the holy Virgin and martyr Lucy. By command of Paschasius the Consular she was handed over to panders to make a public mock of her chastity, but when they would have led her away they could not move her even with ropes, and not even when these were drawn by many yoke of oxen then they poured upon her boiling pitch, rosin, and oil but these did not hurt her, and at length she was smitten in the neck with a sword, and so finished her testimony, in the year 303.


"There are few Lucys nowadays among Christian ladies, because sensuality, pride, and vanity are instilled into their minds by the false maxims and pernicious example of those with whom they first converse. Alas I unless a constant watchfulness and restraint both produce and strengthen good habits, the inclinations of our souls lean of their own accord toward corruption." - Rev. Alban Butler

Islamic terrorism is not over

Islamic Terrorism Is Over If You Want It

giovedì 29 novembre 2012

Today it starts the Novena for the Immaculate Conception

Opening prayer to the Immaculata
V. How fair You are, O Mary!
R. How fair You are, O Mary!

V. The original stain is not in You.
R. The original stain is not in You.

V. You are the boast of Jerusalem.
R. You are the joy of Israel.

V. You are the pride of our people.
R. You are the advocate of sinners.

V. O Mary!
R. O Mary!

V. You are the wisest of virgins.
R. You are the kindest of mothers.

V. Pray for us.
R. Intercede for us with our Lord Jesus Christ.

V. Holy Virgin, You were spotless from the very moment of Your conception.
R. Because You bore His Son, pray to the Father for us.

Let us pray:

Through the spotless conception of the Virgin, O God, You made ready a dwelling place worthy of Your Son. In anticipation of Your Son’s death You preserved Her from every stain. Please purify us by Her intercession, so that we might find our way to You. We ask this through Christ our Lord.
Amen.





Novena Prayer to the ImmaculataI greet You, ever-blessed Virgin, Mother of God, throne of grace, miracle of almighty power! I greet You, sanctuary of the most Holy Trinity and Queen of the universe, Mother of mercy and refuge of sinners! Most loving Mother, attracted by Your beauty and sweetness, and by Your tender compassion, I confidently turn to You, and beg of You to obtain for me of Your dear Son the favour I request of this novena:[Here to mention your request]Obtain for me also, Queen of Heaven, the most lively contrition for my many sins and the grace to imitate closely those virtues which You practiced so faithfully, especially humility, purity, and obedience. Above all, I beg You to be my mother and protectress, to receive me into the number of Your devoted children, and to guide me from Your high throne of glory. Do not reject my petitions, Mother of mercy! Have pity on me, and do not abandon me during life or at the moment of my death.

Daughter of the Eternal Father, Mother of the Eternal Son, Spouse of the Holy Spirit, temple of the adorable Trinity, pray for me. Immaculate and tender heart of Mary, refuge of sinners, filled with the most lively respect, love, and gratitude, I devote myself forever to Your service, and I offer You my heart with all that I am and all that belongs to me. Accept this offering, sweet Queen of heaven and earth, and obtain for me of Your dear Son, Jesus Christ, the favours I ask through Your intercession in this novena. Obtain for me also a tender, generous, constant love of God, perfect submission to His adorable will, the true spirit of a Christian, and the grace of final perseverance.


Amen.


domenica 25 novembre 2012

November 25th

Septimo Kalendas Decembris. Luna decima. Alexandriae in Aegypto, sanctae Catharinae, uirginis et martyris, quae, ob fidei Christianae confessionem, sub Maximino imperatore, in carcerem trusa, et postmodum scorpionibus diutissime caesa, tandem capitis obtruncatione martyrium compleuit. Ipsius corpus, in montem Sinai mirabiliter ab Angelis delatum, ibidem, frequenti Christianorum concursu, pia ueneratione colitur.

Russell Quan can't do no wrong

Is this his 27th band? He's a true man.

mercoledì 24 ottobre 2012

Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira commentary on St. Raphael the Archangel

Today, Wednesday, October 24, 2012, in the Traditional Calendar it's the Feast of St. Raphael the Archangel.


What follows is a comment made by the late Prof. Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira.


Regarding devotion to the Angels, something rarely spoken about today is that Heaven is a true court. When I was a boy and the egalitarian spirit was less pervasive in society, more was said about the Heavenly Court. Books of piety, religion teachers and people in general spoke much more about the Heavenly Court.

The idea of a heavenly court is based on the idea that God stands before the Angels and Saints as a King before his court. Because of the similarity that exists between Heaven and creation, the earthly courts in many ways are images of the Heavenly Court. For example, following the monarchic protocol that existed to make the work of the King easier, there were eminent nobles who assisted the King when he received placets, that is, the requests of his people.


First, each person would approach the King, be presented by a noble, and speak briefly with the King putting forth his request. Then, he would deliver a scroll with his formal request to the King, which would be passed to a high dignitary and placed on a table. In this way the King would hear many different persons in an audience. Their requests would be examined by a special council, which would give its opinion and ask the King for his final decision.

You can see that requests to the King, as well as his decisions, were mediated by many nobles. One would reach the King through the same steps that served to distribute his decisions. In the court there is a hierarchy of functions, dignities and mediations that allow an individual to approach the King, as well as for the King to reach the individual. This is the mechanism of the court.

In the Heavenly Court, much the same thing happens. In absolute terms, God Our Lord does not need anyone. However, since He created a multitude of diverse beings, it is natural that He would give these creatures tasks according to their positions, dignities and missions. It is also natural that these beings would exert a special efficiency, brilliance and splendor to serve their Creator.


Heaven needs, therefore, a life with hierarchy, diversification of function, protocol, and dignity of court. One of the consequences of this is that, according to the order created by God, the Angels should be the intercessors and rulers of men.

The feast day of St. Raphael reminds us that he is an eminent intercessor – a special patron of the sick and travelers – who brings our prayers to God. He is one of the highest angelic spirits that assist God and, therefore, has conditions to ask God for the graces we need.

This general consideration inspired by St. Raphael’s mission shows us how similar earthly realities are to heavenly realities. Insofar as we love the earthly realities that are similar to those of Heaven, we are preparing ourselves for Heaven. Love of hierarchy, nobility, distinction and elevation prepare us for Heaven. 

This preparation for Heaven is ever more necessary as we sink into a world of horror. Our exterior surroundings are increasingly monstrous, chaotic and disorganized. In order not to fall into despair, the human soul needs to see something that is magnificent and well-organized. It is harmful to a man’s soul to live in constant disarray, seeing things deteriorating and decaying. Since everything that is elevated and dignified is disappearing from the earth, our desire for Heaven should intensify in order not to lose the psychological conditions to survive in this world.


Just to have an idea of the splendor of St. Raphael, we can consider that a saint, whom I think was Blessed Anna Maria Taigi but I am not sure, saw her Guardian Angel. When she saw him, she prostrated herself on the ground to adore him, thinking that he was God. The Angel then explained that he was just her Guardian Angel. From this we can have an idea of how the splendor of a simple Guardian Angel – who belongs to the lowest choir of Angels – is absolutely superior to our human nature. Further, if this is the case regarding a simple Guardian Angel, we see that it is almost unimaginable for the human mind to grasp the full splendor of St. Raphael. 

Is there a way for us to visualize the relation of St. Raphael with Our Lady? We know that it is difficult, but returning to the earthly realities that are images of Heaven, we can picture how St. Louis of France, for example, would have dealt with his mother, Blanche of Castile. He was a tall man, handsome, magnificent, who both attracted and imposed respect. He was affable to his friends and terrible before his enemies. He was the most grandiose and decorous king of his time. He was also a saint, and the aura of sanctity reflected in him. This grand man was a devoted son as well. If we imagine him speaking with Blanche of Castile, we picture in the scene a great distinction, elevation and sublimity.  

This image provides us an analogy to understand the relation of St. Raphael with Our Lady. St. Louis was a kind of angel in earth; St. Raphael is a kind of St. Louis in Heaven. The transposition gives us an idea of the joy that we will have in Heaven contemplating St. Raphael.



Let us ask him to help us to reach Heaven in order to contemplate him. We should also ask him to help us maintain a constant consideration of the celestial order to give us consolation and the hope of Heaven and the Reign of Mary in the increasingly sad days in which we live.  

martedì 23 ottobre 2012

La lettera pastorale del Papa su Santa Ildegarda di Bingen. Dal Medioevo una guida per l’«homo viator»

Qualche giorno fa è stata pubblicata la lettera apostolica di Benedetto XVI, datata 7 ottobre 2012, per la proclamazione di santa Ildegarda di Bingen (1098-1179) come dottore della Chiesa universale. I dottori della Chiesa sono santi canonizzati che il Papa o un Concilio propongono ai fedeli come maestri particolarmente qualificati della dottrina cattolica. Il titolo è raro, dal momento che i dottori della Chiesa finora proclamati sono solo trentacinque. ildegarda è la terza donna a ricevere questo titolo, dopo Teresa d’Ávila (1515-1582) e Teresa di Lisieux (1873-1897). Il Pontefice è particolarmente affezionato a questa santa benedettina medievale tedesca, che ha spesso citato, e vale dunque la pena di tornare sulla lettera apostolica.

Dopo avere ricordato che il beato Giovanni Paolo II (1920-2005) ebbe a definire Ildegarda «luce del suo popolo e del suo tempo», Benedetto XVI osserva che «come per ogni autentica esperienza umana e teologale, la sua autorevolezza supera decisamente i confini di un’epoca e di una società» e s’impone a noi ancora oggi. La ragione è la «straordinaria armonia tra la dottrina e la vita quotidiana», ispirata alla Regola di san Benedetto (ca. 480-547) e accompagnata da una straordinaria «capacità di penetrazione delle realtà celesti».

Il Commento continua sul Quintuplo

lunedì 22 ottobre 2012

Il Capro Espiatorio

Il capro espiatorio era una capra
che durante le feste ebraiche dello Yom Kippur, il Giorno dell’espiazione,
veniva allontanata nel deserto
in seguito a un rito nel quale il sacerdote del tempio di Gerusalemme,
ponendo le mani sulla testa dell’animale,
confessava tutti i peccati del popolo d’Israele.

Il rito, meticolosamente descritto nella Bibbia ( Levitico, 16 ),
aveva come fine quello di espiare tutte le colpe del popolo ebraico,
addossate simbolicamente alla capra,
la quale si rendeva protagonista di tale espiazione andando a morire nel deserto.

venerdì 19 ottobre 2012

lunedì 15 ottobre 2012

AD PERPETVAM REI MEMORIAM

PAVLUS PP. VI LITTERAE APOSTOLICAE "MVLTIFORMIS SAPIENTIA"* A QVIBVS S. TERESIA A IESV, VIRGO ABVLENSIS, DOCTOR ECCLESIAE VNIVERSALIS RENVNTIATUR.


  

 Multiformis Sapientia Dei apertius quandoque dilectis Christi discipulis innotescit, quibus arcano consilio atque singulari liberalitate datur, ut intellegant, quae sit «latitudo et longitudo et sublimitas et profundum: scire etiam supereminentem scientiae caritatem Christi» (Eph 3, 18). Etenim «Spiritus Sanctus non tantum per sacramenta et ministeria populum Dei sanctificat et ducit eumque virtutibus ornat, sed, dona sua dividens prout vult (1 Cor 12, 11), inter omnes ordinis fideles distribuit gratias quoque speciales, quibus illos aptos et promptos reddit ad suscipienda varia opera vel officia pro renovatione et ampliore aedificatione Ecclesiae proficua» (Conc. Vat. II, Lum. Gent. 12).


  Divina hac sacrorum charismatum copia affluenter est cumulata Teresia a Iesu, clarissima illa ac nobilissima virgo eademque Ordinis Beatae Mariae Virgins de Monte Carmelo reformatrix, quae, simplex cum esset moribus humanarumque litterarum imperita, dicendo et scribendo tantopere eminuit, ut ad eam referri possint haec verba: «in medio Ecclesiae aperuit os eius» (Eccli 15, 5), ac iure merito sit a sanctis viris sancta praedicata, verum etiam et dux certissima et magistra a sacrarum disciplinarum doctoribus exculta; nimiis quamvis implicata peculiares officii sui negotiis, meliorem nihilominus, id est caelestem, patriam continenter est visa appetere; aegra plerumque corpore et aerumnosa, fortissima quaeque pro Dei gloria Christique Ecclesiae utilitate sebi animosa proposuit.

  Quapropter cum haec famula Dei, sive eximis vitae factis sive animi virtutibus egregiis sive ingenii acie sit per omne tempus celebrata, id profecto iustam et magnam causam habemus, cur, quem ad modum Gregorius XV, decessor Noster, ei caelitum honores decreverit, ut universi Christi fideles intellegerent, quam abunde in ancillam suam Deus effudisset de Spiritu Sancto (cf Litt. Decr. Omnipotens sermo), ita Nos, ob eius praecipue rerum divinarum cognitionem et praeceptionem, Ecclesiae doctorem, mulierum primam, eam pronuntiandam esse non dubitemus. Spe enim ducimur ac fore confidimus, ut Teresia a Iesu, sollemni decreto christianae vitae magistra declarata, hodierni etiam temporis homines vehementer excitet, ut ea in primis colant, quae ad fovendam animi pietatem ad supernarumque rerum contemplationem et adeptionem conducant.

  Teresia nata est Abulae, in Hispaniarum finibus, die XXVIII mensis Martii, anno MDXV. Quae vero esset aliquando futura, parvula praenuntiavit, cum in domus hortulis abditam vitam agere conaretur, consilio sibi proposito ea ad exitum perducendi, quae de priscae Ecclesiae martyribus saepe legebat. Matre immature mortua, ipsam Dei Genetricem in auxilium sibi ac praesidium comparavit. Aequum ei igitur fuit, ut ab ineunte adulescentia Deo se tοtam vovere optaret seque in Carmelitidum mulierum coenobium conferret, viginti annos nata. Quae multis haud dubiis indiciis quamquam in virtutes colendas studium impendebat, de pristino tamen animi fervore aliquantulum remittere coepit a suoque proposito declinare. Feliciter vero ei cessit, ut, Petro Alcantarensi, Ludovico Bertrando, Francisco Borgia, Ioanne Abulensi aliisque sanctis viris cohortantibus, ad caelestium rerum considerationem vehementer alliceretur et ad perfectiora Deoque acceptiora semper agenda. Quod consilium alto animo fovit ac perfecit, testibus tam eius spiritus moderatoribus quam iis, qui cum ea vitae operumque consuetudine coniuncti fuerunt.

  Ad peculiaria tamen capessenda munia vocari videbatur, ad quae suopte ingenio ac naturali quadam voluntatis propensione inclinabat. Constanti enim mente et firma movebatur sui Ordinis coenobium condendi, quod altiore ratione, quam suetus mos ferebat, regeretur; idque Sede Apostolica probante absοlvit, septem cum esset et quadraginta annorum, doctis usa sanctisque consiliariis. Obortas autem undique difficultates tam intrepide superavit coeptumque iter tam constanter institit, ut brevi annorum spatio alia in Hispaniae regionibus non pauca coenobia constituerit. Quo aptius praeterea renovatis sororum coenobiis prospiceret atque ad Ecclesiae incrementum apostolicis operibus prodesset, religiosos etiam viros, Carmeli Ordini addictos, ad altiorem vitae disciplinam restituere cogitavit suumque propositum ad effectum deduxit, maxime favente et adiutricem operam praebente sancto Ioanne a Cruce.

  Sic ergo instaurata et aucta sodalitate, ad id mentem intendit, ut pias, quas frequentiores sibi in dies asciverat, mulieres ad sanctae vitae rationem informaret; ut videlicet abditae et solae cum Deo viverent, assiduas pro Ecclesia preces ei adhiberent, corpus suum crebris et voluntariis cruciatibus afflictarent, studiosa inter se affabilitate caritateque iungerentur, Christi praecipuo parentes mandato. Illa autem in omnium virtutum exercitatione spectatissimo erat incitamento et exemplo. Anteibat enim prudentia et evangelica simplicitate, animi demissione, erga praepositos in rebus etiam arduis oboedientia, sui contemptu aliorumque utilitatis studio singulari, quibus iuvandis se suaque impendere non dubitabat. Austeram praeterea et asperam vitam ducebat, in adversis patiens, in prosperis maximopere Deo grata. Praelucebat quoque flagranti in Deum pietate, eius amore pentus devincta. In vicem innumerabilibus a Deo gratiis aucta, ad Ecclesiae tamen prοrsus monita adhaerescebat, cum pluris admodum faceret fidelem et humilem Dei ministres obtemperationem quam visiones, revelationes et exstases. Cuiusmodi ob assiduum cum Domino cοmmercium, luminosum quiddam, ut ferunt, eius in vultu nitere videbatur, summa cunctis admirations et laetitiae causa.

 Huc addendum humanas, quae dicuntur, Teresiam coluisse virtutes, utpote quae valde contenderet, ut verum diceret, fidem servaret, staret promisses, familiarem usque sermonem sereret laetitiae atque humanitatis plenum. In rebus vero agendis ac sustinendis animi magnitudine praestabat, simul vero comitate et aequa in unumquemque existimatiοne et observantia. Neque est obliviscendum eam suas inter curas cοntinentesque labores tempus etiam invenisse et vires ad praeclara opera conscribenda, quae totam vel operosissimi hominis vitam omninο requirere ac detenere viderentur, altissimarum de Deo deque supernis rebus quaestionum subtilem et acutam disceptatricem.


Tam diu denique tamque actuose laborantem brevis et letalis morbus in urbe Alba corripuit et, ut alia incepta aggredi desisteret, cοegit. Suum erga Christi Ecclesiam amantissimae filiae obsequium iterum iterumque obtestans, magna mater piissime obiit die IV menses Octobres, anno MDLXXXII.

  Quae vivens est propter singulares virtutes undique dilaudata, ea luculentius mortua emicuit estque exculta. Merito ergo factum, ut a Paulo V ei beatorum Caelitum, a Gregorio vero XV sanctorum decernerentur honores eaque in christianae religiosaeque vitae proponeretur exemplum, in quod omnes respicerent. Quodsi huius Dei famulae sanctitate ad imitandum trahimur, eius doctrinae excellentia in summam movemur admirationem. Suam enim et intellegendi et dοcendi imperitiam etsi pluries est testata, res tamen altissimas et percipere et docere et scriptes mandare, Deo afflante, valuit, Christum arbitrata unum esse sebi sapientiae fontem et quasi librum vivum. Ad hoc quod attinet, mirum censendum in primis est sanctam Teresiam tanta subtilitate tantaque sollertia in mysterium Christi inque animi humani cοgnitionem penetrasse, ut eius doctrina haud dubiam praesentiam vimque singularis charismatis Spiritus demonstraret. In hac siquidem doctrina excellunt altissimi rerum sensus, mysterii Dei viventis, Christi Salvatoris et Ecclesiae intima comprehensio, acris experientia gratiae, quae naturam, tot dotibus exornatam, nobilitat atque dilatat. Inde summa efficacitas perennisque doctrinae eius auctoritas, quae ultra fines Ecclesiae catholicae protenditur ipsosque non credentes attingit.

  Eius magisterium non solum ad vitam fidelium momentum habuit, verum etiam, et quidem efficienter, ad illam magni ponderis electamque cognitionis theologicae provinciam, quae theologiae spiritualis nomine hodie appellatur. Teresiae enim scripta uberrimus fons sunt multiplicas experientiae, testificationis, perspicientiae spiritualis, unde copiose omnes huius theologiae cultores hauserunt. Eadem scripta, etsi varias ob causas rerumque adiuncta neque secundum praestitutam rationem exarata, concors tamen et solidum doctrinae spiritualis corpus efficiunt. Sic in volumine, quod Libro de su vida inscribitur, summa eorum, quae in ipsa misericors Deus operatus est, enarrat, eorum aperit sensum eademque ante legentium oculos instar mirabilis cuiusdam «historiae salutis» proponit. In commentario autem, cuius est titulus Camino de Perfección, ascetica vitae theologalis fundamenta, scilicet primarias virtutes, itidem necessitatem et gradus orationis, etiam contemplativae, exquisita educandi arte persequitur. In libro deinde, cui Castillo Interior est index, plenam perfectamque progressionem vitae divinae in homine rimatur, qui ad altissimos usque gradus experientiae mysticae, particeps esse potest mysterii Trinitatis et Christi. In opere, vulgo Libro de las Fundaciones appellato, apostolica coepta sua Teresia describit laboresque, quos ad Ordinis sui reformationem pro Christi Ecclesia exantlavit. Eius praeterea Epistulae, humanitatis plenae, versatile eius ingenium animumque ostendunt, quippe quae constitutam sibi vitam contemplativam actuose vivere nitatur ac simul cum suae aetatis hominibus religiosas humanasque vicissitudines participare. In commentariis denique Relaciones inscriptis eminent eius studium et religio, ut dona sua superna Ecclesiae auctoritati omnino subiciat. Veluti centrum spiritualis Teresiae doctrinae est Christus, qui Patrem revelat eique nos coniungit sibique consociata eiusdem vero doctrinae potiora capita sunt oratio christiana ut vita amoris, et Ecclesia, qua regnum Dei in nobis efficitur. Coniunctio nostra cum Christo instituitur in mensa verbi Dei, per continuam Evangelii meditationem, et in mensa Corporis ac Sanguinis eius, per convivium sacrificale Eucharistiae; in utraque hac mensa humanitas Christi Iesu hominem, qui eidem se totum committit, intime assumit in mysterium mortis ipsius, resurrectiοnis et gloriosae vitae apud Patrem. Eam ob causam sacratissima Christi humanitas omne bonum nostrum continet et salutem. Quam doctrinam Teresia in libro de vita sua his exprimit verbis: «nos Deo piacere non possumus, nec Deus solet sua dona nobis impertire, nisi per sacratissimam humanitatem Christi, in quo ipsemet sibi cοmplacet» (22, 6). Summam enim perfectionem homo tunc tantum attinget, cum ei dicere licebit cum Paulo: mihi vivere Christus est (cf Mansiones, VII, 2, 5). Vita autem orationis, quae a Teresia in eοdem vitae suce libro dοcetur (8, 5), existimari potest vita amoris, quatenus oratio ea est amicitiae necessitudo, qua diu solique cum Deo loquimur, a quo scimus nos amari. Deus hominem invitat nec desinit sollicitare, ut suam amicitiam amplectatur atque in dies artiοrem secum habeat communionem. Huiusmodi autem amicitiae cum Patre, per Christum, in Spiritu Sancto, respondere eaque dignus inveniri per gratiam nititur. Magnitudo autem orationis et contemplationis hominem nedum ab iis, quae regnum Dei Ecclesiamque respiciunt, alienet, in eadem maiore consortione et ardore eum compellit. Hoc quidem demonstratur tum vita mirisque factis, quae Teresia, ipsius contemplationis plenitudine acta, in utilitatem Ecclesiae peregit, tum eius testificatione, quam veluti doctrinae suce fundamentum edixit, quamque sincera ventate et cordis laetitia moriens his verbis iteravit: «Gratias tibi ago, Domine, quod ut Ecclesiae filia moriοr».

 Quae cum ita sint, iam die XV mensis Octobris, anno MCMLXVII, propοsitum palam significavimus in albo Ecclesiae doctorum sanctam Teresiam a Iesu scribendi. Quae sententia, non solum Nostra consuetudine cum eiusdem sanctae mulieris doctrina, sed magna etiam nitebatur aestimatione, quam Nostri in Romano Pontificatu decessores iterum iterumque de eius doctrinae excellentia verbis declararunt, qui profecto sollemnem pronuntiationem Nostram antecedere videntur. Quo in numero Gregοrius XV est, cum in ipsis canonizationis Litteris hoc de sanctae Teresiae doctrina testimonium dederit: «Omnipotens . . . ita adimplevit eam spiritu intellegentiae, ut . . . illam caelestis sapientiae imbribus irrigaverit». Magni insuper pοnderis est cοmparatio, quam Benedictus XIII in Litteris canonizationis sancti Ioannis a Cruce fecit eiusdem santi cum Teresia: «in mysticae theοlogiae arcanis scripto explicandis, aeque ac Teresia divinitus instructus fuit»; qua doctor cum doctore confertur. Clarissima praeterea est sancti Pii X declaratio: «tanta tamque utilis ad salutarem christianorum eruditionem fuit haec femina, ut magnis iis Ecclesiae patribus et doctoribus, quos memoravimus (nempe Gregorium Magnum, Iοannem Chrysostomum, Anselmum Augustanum) aut non multum aut nihilo omnino cedere videatur». Idemque Summus Pontifex asserere non dubitavit, datis Litteris Apostolicis «Ex quo Nostrae» die VII mensis Martii, anno MDCCCCXIV: «iuste Ecclesia huic virgini honores qui doctorum sunt deferre consuevit». Benedictus autem XV, Patres Cardinales alloquens, die XXIV mensis Decembris, anno MDCCCCXXI, dixit cum sanctitatis corona sertum doctrinae Teresiam coniunxisse. Pius XI, in Constitutione Apostolica «Summorum Pontificum», die XXV mensis lulii, anno MDCCCCXXII, data, eandem appellavit «sapientissimam matrem» et «altissimam contemplationis magistram». Pius XII, in sermone die XXIII mensis Novembres, anno MDCCCCLI habito, asseruit sanctae Teresiae ope . . . doctrinae spiritualis thesaurum Spiritum Sanctum universae Ecclesiae comparasse. Ioannes denique XXIII, proximus decessor Noster, eam nuncupavit Ecclesiae lumen singulare, in Epistula nempe Apostolica, die XVI mensis Iulii, anno MDCCCCLXII, data.

E sanctis autem viris, ii, qui, superno Dei providentis consilio, vitae consuetudinem cum Teresia habuerunt, numquam suum erga eius sanctitatem cultum ab eius doctrina, divinitus infusa, seiunxerunt; qui fuerunt viri magni quidem nominis, Petrus Alcantarensis, Franciscus Borgia, Ioannes a Cruce, Ioannes de Ribera, Ioannes Abulensis. Qui omnes eam magistram habuerunt contemplationis, a Deo illustratam, vel quo rectius dicamus, magistrorum spiritus magistram. Posteriore tempore sancti erant Ecclesiae doctores, qui eam simili aestimatione venerabantur, ut Franciscus Salesius et Alfonsus de Ligorio, aliique sancti, ut Antonius Maria Claret, Carolus a Setia, Vincentius Paliotti.


Neque umquam in Ecclesia extenuata est opinio virginem Abulensem haberi posse doctorem. Sufficit theologorum Salmanticensium mentem proponere. Hi, cum ea de re quaestio esset, anno MDCLVII palam scripserunt: «habet autem doctricis aureolam matriarche nostra beata Teresia, cuius singularem doctrinam . . . tamquam e caelo emanatam recipit et approbat Ecclesia».


Quapropter, valde cupientibus, ut tantae mulieris sanctitas et doctrina in omnium mages utilitatem cederent, visum est Nobis posse doctores Ecclesiae titulum atque cultum eidem tribui, qui sanctis tantum viris usque adhuc praestiti sunt. Hoc tamen de negotio ut quam diligentissime disceptaret, Sacrae Rituum Congregationi mandavimus. Quae, peritissimorum virorum opera et sententia antea usa, in ordinario coetu, die XX mensis Decembris, anno MDCCCCLXVII habito, id dubium excutiendum proposuit, an titulus et cultus doctoris Ecclesiae praeterquam viris, tribui etiam mulieribus posset, quae, iuxta Benedicti XIV Pont. Max. norma; et decreta, sanctitate et eximia doctrina ad commune fidelium bonum contulissent. Sententiam autem eorum, qui aderant, Patrum Cardinalium Praelatorumque Officialium, id fieri posse asseverantem, ratam Nos habuimus et confirmavimus, die XXI mensis Martii, anno MCMLXVIII. Cumque dilectus Filius Michaël Angelus a Sancto Ioseph, Ordinis Carmelitarum Discalceatorum Praepositus Generalis, sua ipsius suique Ordinis vota declarans, enixe a Nobis postulavisset, ut Teresiam a Iesu doctorem Ecclesiae pronuntiaremus, idque plurimi etiam petivissent S. R. E. Cardinales, Archiepiscopi, Episcopi, Moderatores Religiosorum Ordinum, Congregationum Institutorumque saecularium aliique doctissfimi e Studiorum Universitatibus et altioris ordinis Institutis viri, huiusmodi preces et vota Sacrae Rituum Congregationi perpendenda misimus, quae peculiarem positionem, ut dicunt, eandemque magni ponderis, paravit, totum negotium explorate accurateque pertractantem. Quae cum S. R. E. Cardinales Sacrae Congregationi pro Causis Sanctorum, interea constitutae, praepositi diligentissime recognovissent, sententiam suam in ordinario eiusdem Congregationis coetu, in Vaticanas Aedibus habito die XV mensis Iulii, anno MCMLXIX, significaverunt, post auditam sive relationem Venerabilis Fratris Nostri Arcadii S. R. E. Cardinalis Larraona, huius causae Ponentis, sive Praelatorum Officialium iudicia; omnesque uno ore affirmaverunt sanctam Teresiam a Iesu dignam omnino esse, quae in doctorum Ecclesiae album ascriberetur. De his denique die XXI mensis pulii, superiore anno, certiores facti, omnibus attente perpensis, eiusdem Sacrae Congregationis consultum approbavimus et confirmavimus, statuentes, ut sollemni id ritu conficeretur.


Quod hodie, Deo iuvante cunctaque plaudente Ecclesia, factum est. In Petriano enim templo, undique gentium maximeque ex Hispania fidelium turmis confluentibus, plurimis astantibus S. R. E. Cardinalibus sacrisque et Romanae Curiae et catholicae Ecclesiae Praesulibus, acta omnia confirmantes expostulationibusque concedentes sodalium Ordinis Carmelitarum Discalceatorum ceterorumque petitorum vota perlibenter implentes, haec inter divinum sacrificium pronuntiavimus verba: «CERTA SCIENTIA AC MATVRA DELIBERATIONE DEQUE APOSTOLICAE POTESTATIS PLENITVDINE SANCTAM TΕRESIAM A IESV, VIRGINEM ABVLENSEM, ECCLESIAE VNIVERSALIS DOCTOREM DECLARAMVS».


Quibus verbis prolatis Deoque una cum astantibus gratiis actis, de mira huius Ecclesiae doctoris sanctitate et doctrina sermonem habuimus, ad aramque templi maximam caelesti victima litavimus.


Hac autem super re decernimus, ut haec Litterae Nostrae religiose serventur suosque effectus sive nunc sive in posterum piene habeant; atque praeterea sic sit rite iudicandum ac definiendum, irritumque et inane fiat, si quidquam secus super his a quovis, auctoritate qualibet, scienter vel ignoranter attentare contigerit.


Datum Romae, apud Sanctum Petrum, sub anulo Piscatoris, die septimo et vicesimo menses Septembris, anno Domini millesimo nongentesimo septuagesimo, Pontificatus Nostri octavo.


PAVLUS PP. VI

domenica 14 ottobre 2012

La quijada o carachacha

La quijada o carachacha
Este es uno de los instrumentos más caracterizadores de la sonoridad mestiza afro-peruana.  Hay documentos sobre su uso desde siglo XVIII, que connotan un  arraigo popular sostenido hasta el presente,  a pesar de la condición prácticamente marginal en que tuvo que sobrevivir hasta hace pocas décadas.  Aparte del término convencional de quijada, el pueblo le adjudicó otros de carácter onomatopéyico como carachacha, charrasga, carraca, carrasca, charaina, etcétera.  Sin embargo, hoy  se usa más comúnmente  el término quijada o quijada de burro (aunque no sea sólo de burro). En inglés se llama donkey jawbone.

No sólo en el Perú se toca.  También está documentado su uso en Cuba (donde acompaña el son y el punto), República Dominicana, Haití, en la costa Pacífico de Colombia (como el Chocó), Costa Rica, sur de México (Oaxaca en la costa Pacífico y Veracruz en la costa Atlántica),  en Guatemala, Belice (donde acompaña, junto a tambores, la música buru), y en Chiloé (sur de Chile).  En algunos países su uso ha cobrado fuerza en décadas recientes:

  • ...Años atrás, las quijadas de burro se veían sólo en los potreros, semienterradas y en medio de algún hormiguero, sin embargo, a partir de que en algunos países hispanoamericanos se empezó a utilizar como instrumento musical, se han convertido en un objeto comercial... [Al son de la quijada -  Tlacotalpan, Veracruz]
En otros, se habla de la recuperación de este instrumento, que había caído en desuso, como en Costa Rica.   Este es un terreno aún muy movedizo, precisamente por la escasa investigación especializada  (histórica y musicológica) que el humilde maxilar ha merecido.   El denominador común es la casi nula investigación de su periplo americano y su evolución performática, siendo pocas ideas las que se tienen por seguras: que se trata de un instrumento afro-americano, y que se usa para acompañar música mestiza afro-americana (entendiendo lo afro-americano por lo afro-latinoamericano).  De todos modos, habiendo una muy alta probabilidad de esta certeza, creo que esto puede ser aún revisable; habría que indagar más en la historia musical hispana, e incluso de la costa occidental africana y el Magreb. Es claro que este instrumento debió surgir en una cultura cuya economía tenía incorporado sistemáticamente el uso de la fuerza motriz de los animales de que provenía (caballos, mulas, burros, asnos), y cuyo entorno geográfico debía ser predominantemente árido y seco, condición que podía propiciar su espontáneo descubrimiento.

Referencias históricas en el Perú: 

Tenemos varias referencias textuales e iconográficas sobre el uso histórico de este instrumento.  El texto más temprano conocido a la fecha es de 1775, de Carrió de la Vandera  (Concolorcorvo), quien consideró la música de los negros mucho más grosera que la de los indios, en particular la producida por esos maxilares chirriantes, que le sonaban destemplados:

  • ...Las diversiones de los negros bozales son las más bárbaras y groseras que se pueden imaginar. Su canto es un aúllo. De ver sólo los instrumentos de su música se inferirá lo desagradable de su sonido. La quijada de un asno, bien descarnada, con su dentadura floja, son las cuerdas de su principal instrumento, que rascan con un hueso de carnero, asta u otro palo duro, con que hacen unos altos y tiples tan fastidiosos y desagradables que provocan a tapar los oídos o a correr a los burros, que son los animales más estólidos y menos espantadizos. En lugar del agradable tamborilillo de los indios, le ciñen un pellejo tosco. Este tambor le carga un negro, tendido sobre su cabeza, y otro va por detrás, con dos palitos en la mano, en figura de zancos, golpeando el cuero con sus puntas, sin orden y sólo con el fin de hacer ruido. Los demás instrumentos son igualmente pulidos, y sus danzas se reducen a menear la barriga y las caderas con mucha deshonestidad, a que acompañan con gestos ridículos, y que traen a la imaginación la fiesta que hacen al diablo los brujos en sus sábados, y finalmente sólo se parecen las diversiones de los negros a las de los indios, en que todas principian  y finalizan en borracheras.   [El lazarillo de ciegos caminantes desde Buenos Aires, hasta Lima... Alonso Carrió de la Vandera - Concolorcorvo - 1775.  Edición de la Biblioteca Ayacucho.  Barcelona : 1985, pp. 175-176]
Fernando Romero encontró otra referencia textual en el Mercurio Peruano de 1791, que sería cuestión de buscar con paciencia aquí.  Las otras  referencias  son más bien iconográficas, tan o más elocuentes que los textos, siendo la más temprana, del  Códice Trujillo del Perú, elaborado entre 1782 y 1785:


Danza de Diablicos (Códice Trujillo del Perú - il. E145) 
Se observa la ejecución de tres instrumentos: guitarra, quijada y cajita

Desde las primeras décadas  del siglo XIX, Pancho Fierro trazó varias acuarelas con la danza del Son de los Diablos, de las cuales sólo se difunden masivamente unas cuantas.   Es preciso acotar que no todas las acuarelas atribuidas a Pancho Fierro salieron de su mano, pues tuvo muchos seguidores que han quedado en el anonimato; es claro que Pancho Fierro  no sólo legó una obra personal, sino un estilo para graficar estampas costumbristas de la época.  En casi todas ellas aparece el ejecutante de quijada o carachacha en primero o segundo plano, acompañado siempre de un ejecutante de cajita y frecuentemente de guitarra y de arpa.  Un par de ejemplos:



Danza de Diablos el Día de Cuasimodo
Colección de The Hispanic Society of América  
["Tipos del Perú. La Lima criolla de Pancho Fierro". Natalia Majluf, Marcus B. Burke. Madrid : El Viso, 2008, p. 120]


 Sigue el Son de los Diablos / (El diablo de la cajita) (1820)
[colección de la Pinacoteca Municipal Ignacio Merino - Municipalidad de Lima]

En este texto de Fernando Romero tenemos dos acuarelas de Pancho Fierro en que podemos ver  el Son de los Diablos con arpa y guitarra, además de las infaltables quijada y cajita.


Los documentos señalan que la quijada se ejecutaba en las fiestas coloniales de Corpus Christi y Cuasimodo,  que eso persistió a inicios de la república, y que se desplazó con más vigor desde fines del siglo XIX a inicios del siglo XX, a las fiestas de carnaval, donde ha quedado -en el aspecto ritual- hasta la fecha.  El género que acompaña la quijada es  principalmente el festejo, que engloba al panalivio y al Son de los Diablos.   En performances escénicas de décadas recientes, más sofisticadas, podemos ver la quijada acompañando ya no sólo festejos sino landós y otros géneros.


Aspecto físico

Se trata de un maxilar inferior que perteneció alguna vez a algún buen  burro, mula, asno o caballo.  Este maxilar debe tener los molares posteriores aflojados de sus alvéolos, no así los caninos frontales. Una  zona entre los molares y caninos, en la parte de la barbilla,  queda libre, para que la mano del ejecutante pueda sostener el instrumento por esa parte.   Como varios otros  instrumentos de la música afroperuana, éste surge de reutilizar algo que está en desuso o descartado (ha sido el caso también del cajón y de la cajita).  En este caso, el factor climático jugó su rol.  Las osamentas de los nobles animales de trabajo (de campo, de arrieraje...), que permanecían mucho tiempo a la intemperie,  bajo el sol  inclemente y entre el seco suelo costeño, debieron poner a punto esas quijadas, sin mayor tratamiento químico, descubriendo espontáneamente su sonoridad a quienes las manipulaban, personas humildes que carecían de monedas para comprar instrumentos, y que por ello debían inventarlos de las formas más heterodoxas e ingeniosas.


Don Nicomedes Santa Cruz explica  la forma de limpiar y aflojar los molares:



  • ...si al fin tenemos la suerte de conseguir una quijada, lo más probable es que no suenen sus molares por conservar adheridos, entre las piezas y alvéolos, restos momificados de carne.  Conviene entonces rociar ron de quemar sobre las muelas y prenderle fuego por unos instantes.  Repetir  esta operación varias veces y finalmente, remojarla bien en ron de quemar y dejarla en el techo o azotea para que seque al sol..  Al cabo de varios días de repetir esta última operación se advertirá que las muelas empiezan a aflojar y al menor golpe sueltan su peculiar sonido -carraquiento, de donde viene el onomatopéyico nombre de caracacha, hoy en desuso -. [La quijada de burro. Nicomedes Sata Cruz.  La Nueva Crónica - Suplemento.  Lima, domingo 11 nov. 1973, p. 19] 
En la costa peruana la quijada opera como instrumento de percusión e idiófono  a la vez, debido a las variadas formas de ejecución, por:
  • Golpe de mano
  • Percusión rítmica de mano
  • Sacudimiento (el ejecutante levanta el instrumento al aire y lo sacude)
  • Raspado (para esto se usa un complemento llamado raspador que puede ser una pieza de hueso, de palo -madera- o un peine)

 Áreas donde se ejecuta:


Según el Mapa de instrumentos musicales de uso popular en el Perú [Lima : INC, 1978, pp. 52-53], tenemos las siguientes áreas, que coinciden con las de las antiguas intendencias coloniales de Trujillo y Lima, sobre la costa centro-norte:

  • Ica: Chincha, Ica, Pisco
  • La Libertad: Pacasmayo, Trujillo
  • Lambayeque: Chiclayo, Lambayeque
  • Lima: Cañete, Chancay, Lima
  • Piura: Ayabaca, Morropón. Paita, Piura, Sullana, Talara.

El vibraslap


La modernidad globalizada ha producido un instrumento que emula el sonido de la quijada.  Fué inventado y patentado en 1997 por Martin Cohen, dueño de la compañía Latin Percussion, especializada en instrumentos de percusión.  Concebido como vibraslap, se comercializa también como donkey call o rattleslap.  A diferencia del maxilar tradicional, éste se hace de varios tamaños y materiales, por lo general, metal y madera.  Podemos ver detalles sobre este instrumento aquí.


Source: cantera de sonidos

venerdì 12 ottobre 2012

Sulla prossima generazione (parte 1 di - credo - 2)

A molti sembra che la nostra società, o a dire il vero quel che rimane della civiltà occidentale, stia cadendo a pezzi. La crisi economica, la crisi morale, e la crisi politica si combinano per creare una “tempesta perfetta”.
Credo che tutte abbiamo la medesima origine: abbandonando il senso di ordine cosmico e morale di una civiltà, e preferendo una "moderna" (ancora! ma questo ismo inventato a Parigi non ha 150 anni e più?) crescita senza limiti e un progresso verso un universo interamente artificiale.
Un simile processo sta all’origine di un’altra crisi: la quinta, quella dell’educazione. L’educazione è in crisi non soltanto perché gli standard di alfabetizzazione o di matematica si sono abbassati, ma perché non abbiamo una visione coerente, come società, dello scopo dell’educazione o di ciò che essa intenda perseguire. Posssiamo dire che sia supposto che la scuola e l'universita non fossero che che una gabbia per tenere i nostri giovani lontani dalle strade, con l'obbiettivo di addestrare gli operai alla grande macchina economica, la stessa macchina che speriamo produrrà ricchezza senza fine. 


Ma non possiamo sapere a cosa serva l’educazione, poiché non abbiamo più idea del perché esista l’uomo, o che cosa sia veramente un essere umano. 

Abbiamo bisogno di una filosofia dell’educazione basata su un’adeguata “antropologia” o immagine dell’uomo, se dobbiamo rimettere l’educazione sul giusto binario. La tradizione cattolica – e più ampiamente la grande tradizione della civiltà occidentale – ha definito l’apprendimento umano nei termini di quello che divenne noto come “Arti Liberali”. Come descritto da S. Agostino e altri, queste consistevano in sette discipline, raggruppate in tre arti di linguaggio e quattro arti cosmologiche.
Il primo gruppo del Trivio consisteva nella Grammatica, nella Dialettica e nella Retorica; il secondo, il Quadrivio, era formato da Aritmetica, Geometria, Musica e Astronomia.
Entrambi i gruppi erano considerati propedeutici agli studi superiori di Filosofia e Teologia – cioè l’amore della Saggezza (philo-sophia) e la conoscenza di Dio (theo-logos). Le Arti Liberali erano il nocciolo del curriculum alla cuore del sistema educativo classico e medievale.
 

Naturalmente c’è un’ovvia obiezione a qualunque tentativo di far risorgere questa tradizione al giorno d’oggi. Dal Medioevo la scienza ha fatto progressi. Il mondo è cambiato.
Q
ueste sette particolari discipline ci devono interessare ancora.
Come possiamo inserirvi altre materie importanti come Biologia, Storia, Geografia, Sociologia, Informatica e il resto, in una cornice così stretta? Perché dovremmo anche solo provarci? Di certo è vero che tante cose sono cambiate. Sicuramente è cambiata in modo radicale la nostra visione del mondo e di noi stessi. Ciononostante, il vero mondo e la nostra vera natura rimangono quelli che erano un tempo, e le antiche categorie sono ancora importanti.

Nel caso del Trivio, anche a un livello superficiale è chiaro che la conoscenza di come funzionano le lingue, come pensare in modo chiaro e come persuadere gli altri, sono tutti talenti oggi rilevanti come lo sono sempre stati.
Aggiungere Latino e Grammatica inglese e un po’ di formazione nei principi della logica e dell’eloquenza, senza dimenticare alcuni Grandi Libri, al curriculum delle nostre scuole moderne sarebbe una grande idea. Ma il Trivio ha fondamenta molto più profonde, come pure le Arti Liberali in genere.

Nella Caritas in Veritate Papa Benedetto scrive della "grammatica" della creazione "che indica finalità e criteri per un utilizzo sapiente, non strumentale e arbitrario" (48). Nel suo messaggio per la Giornata Mondiale della Pace del 2007 scrive di una "grammatica" trascendente iscritta nelle coscienze umane o nei cuori umani, nei quali si rispecchia il progetto sapiente di Dio”. E scrivendo prima della sua elezione a Papa guardò a Platone per aiutarlo a comprendere questo fenomeno della coscienza come “simile ad una originaria memoria del bene e del vero (le due realtà coincidono)” e quindi come una “anamnesi [reminiscenza] del Creatore” (si veda il suo libro Sulla Coscienza, davvero fantastico).
La grammatica non è solo l’insieme di regole del linguaggio, ma il primo dono dell’umanità, il legame con la nostra Origine attraverso la memoria, il linguaggio e la tradizione. Con la grammatica affrontiamo le radici più profonde della nostra esistenza. Adamo, nel dare i nomi agli animali, divenne il primo grammatico.

lunedì 8 ottobre 2012

The Battle of Lepanto: Santa Maria della Vittoria (Our Lady of the Rosary)

On October 7 the Catholic Church celebrates the feast of Our Lady of the Rosary, but the feast has its origin in an event, the battle of Lepanto, that took place on Oct. 7, 1571, when a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of southern European Catholic maritime states, decisively defeated the main fleet of the Ottoman Empire on the northern edge of the Gulf of Corinth, off western Greece.

According to some historical accounts, such as those recorded in the Vatican Archives, on Oct. 7, 1571 Pope Pius V entered the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore to pray the Rosary and ask Our Lady to intercede for a Catholic victory. Later on that day, the Pope was granted a miraculous vision of the Holy League’s stunning victory. He is saidto have suddenly interrupted his business with some Cardinals, and looking up, cried out,
“A truce to business! Our great task at present is to thank God for the victory which He has just given the Catholic army.”

As military historian John F. Guilmartin, Jr. put it, “Turkish victory at Lepanto would have been a catastrophe of the first magnitude for Christendom and Europe would have followed a historical trajectory strikingly different from that which obtained.”

giovedì 4 ottobre 2012

LITANIAE DE SERAPHICO PATRE NOSTRO FRANCISCO

Kyrie, eleison.
Christe, eleison.
Kyrie, eleison.
Christe, audi nos.
Christe, exaudi nos.
Pater de caelis Deus, miserere nobis.
Fili Redemptor mundi Deus, miserere nobis.
Spiritus Sancte Deus, miserere nobis.
Sancta Trinitas, unus Deus, miserere nobis.
Sancta Maria immaculate concepta, ora pro nobis.
Sancta Maria, Advocata Seraphici Religionis, ora pro nobis.

Sancte Francisce Seraphice, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, Pater prudentissime, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, Patriarcha pauperum, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, despiciens mundum, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, exemplum paenitentiae, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, vincens mundi vitia, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, imitator Salvatoris, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, ferens Christi stigmata, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, Iesu characteribus insignite, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, norma castitatis, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, forma humilitatis, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, via errantium, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, medela infirmorum, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, columna Ecclesiae, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, fidei defensor, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, athleta Christi, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, propugnaculum militantium, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, scutum inexpugnabile, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, malleus haereticorum, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, conversio paganorum, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, erigens claudos, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, suscitans mortuos, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, mundans leprosos, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, exstirpator vitiorum, ora pro nobis.
Sancte Francisce, procurator divinae gratiae, ora pro nobis.

Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, parce nobis, Domine.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, exaudi nos, Domine.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis, Domine.

Christe, audi nos.
Christe, exaudi nos.
Kyrie, eleison.
Christe, eleison.
Kyrie, eleison.
Pater noster…
V. Et ne nos inducas in tentationem.
R. Sed libera nos a malo.
V. Ora pro nobis, Beate Pater Noster Francisce.
R. Ut digni efficiamur promissionibus Christi.
V. Domine exaudi orationem meam,
R. et clamor meus ad te veniat.

Oremus. Extingue in nobis desiderium mundanarum rerum, omnipotens Deus, et intercedente beato Francisco Patre pauperum concede propitius, ut sorte nostra contenti in hoc saeculo aeterna fortius appetamus.

Omnipotens sempiterne Deus, infunde cordibus nostris studium castae humilitatis et humilis castitatis, ut imitando Beatum Patrem Nostrum. Franciscum tibi mundo corde et corpore serviamus. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. R. Amen.